Mughal Dynasty

The Mughal dynasty was one of the longest-reigning dynasties in India before the colonisation of India by the British. The Mughal dynasty had conquered most of Northern India from the 16th century to the mid of 18th century. This article will provide important facts on some of the rulers of the Mughal dynasty.

Mughal Dynasty – List of the Most Well-Known Mughal Rulers

A list of the most well-known Mughal dynasty rulers is given below:

  1. Babur
  2. Humayun
  3. Akbar
  4. Jahangir
  5. Shah Jahan
  6. Aurangazeb

Babur – Founder of Mughal Empire

  • Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire and he was the first Emperor of the Mughal Dynasty.
  • Babur was the descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur.
  • Babur was born on 14 February 1483.
  • Babur was born in Fergana Valley, which is located in present day Uzbekistan.
  • The Sultan of Delhi Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat held in 1526 C.E. After defeating Ibrahim Lodi, Babur established the Mughal Empire.
  • Babur defeated the powerful ruler Rana Sanga of the Mewar Kingdom in the Battle of Khanwa. This helped Babur to establish control over Northern India.

Akbar – The Most Famous Mughal Emperor

  • Akbar was the third emperor of the Mughal dynasty.
  • Akbar succeeded his father Humayun. The reign of Akbar started from 11th February 1556 and went on till 27th October 1605, till he died. Bairam Khan was the regent of Akbar.
  • During the reign of Akbar, the empire was divided into 15 Subahs.
  • In the Mughal Empire, a State or Province was known as a Subah.
  • The subahs were established by Akbar when he carried out his administrative reforms from 1572 to 1580.
  • Subahs were further divided into districts known as Sarkars.
  • The further divisions of Sarkars were known as Mahals or Parganas.
  • During the end of the empire in the 18th century, the Subahs were conquered by the British and Marathas.
  • Akbar had 6 wives. Mariam-uz-Zamani was the chief consort of Mughal emperor Akbar. She was a Hindu also famously known as Jodhan Bai.
  • Akbar had many children, among them, the most famous was his son Jahangir. Jahangir succeeded Akbar.
  • Akbar was fond of art and culture. He established a massive library which had works in many different languages.
  • His library was staffed with artists, translators, scholars, calligraphers, book binders, and readers.
  • A library was established at Fatehpur Sikri exclusively for women.
  • Buland Darwaza was built by Mughal Emperor Akbar, to commemorate his victory over Gujarat.

Shah Jahan – Built the Famous Mughal Architecture

  • The fifth Mughal emperor was Shah Jahan.
  • Shah Jahan reigned from 1628 to 1658.
  • Shah Jahan commissioned the best known Mughal architecture, the Taj Mahal in Agra.
  • The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) recognized the Taj Mahal as a World Heritage Site in 1983.
  • Red Fort – UNESCO designated it as a World Heritage Site in 2007. It was built by Shah Jahan, when he decided to move the capital from Agra to Delhi. It was the residence of the Mughal rulers.
  • Shalimar Gardens – It is a 40 acre garden built by Shah Jahan in 1642. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.


  • Aurangazeb was the sixth Mughal emperor. He kept facing stiff resistance from the Marathas.
  • Aurangazeb ruled over the Indian subcontinent for a period of 49 years.
  • Aurangazeb established Sharia Law in the Indian subcontinent.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)


Who started the Mughal dynasty?

Babur was the founder of the Mughal dynasty. Babur was a descendant of Genghis Khan (Mongol conqueror) and Timur.

How many Mughal dynasty kings are there?

There were 6 major Mughal dynasty kings. They were Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangazeb.

How long did the Mughal dynasty last?

The Mughal dynasty lasted from the 16th century to the mid of the 18th century. Babur was the first ruler of the Mughal dynasty. He ruled from 1526 to 1530. The last king of the Mughal dynasty was Bahadur Shah II. His reign started in 1837 and ended in 1857. The decline in the Mughal empire was due to the rise of Marathas, and Sikh emperors.

Who defeated the Mughal dynasty?

The Mughal dynasty faced stiff resistance from the Marathas and Sikh emperors, primarily from the Marathas. Marathas conquered almost all the territories of Mughals in Northern India. The British took control of the remaining small territory of the Mughals.

Who is the best Mughal king?

The phrase ‘best king’ is a very subjective word. Many people will have different opinions, but most historians would agree that the most popular and well-known Mughal ruler was Akbar.